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    Implications of Multi-party system in Pakistan’s politics

    Implications of Multi-party system in Pakistan’s politics

    The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is an developing state with a wide range of political, economic, and social issues. Due to British colonialism in India, the western ideology of democracy has had a significant influence on Pakistan’s politics. Democracy offers the ability for any individual or group to create its own political party and lay out a political platform. Every section of society benefits from this system’s enhancement of free speech. Although the multiparty system has both positive and negative effects on Pakistan’s political situation, the positive effects are loe than the negative ones, because it has been significantly contributing to the state’s growing political instability.

    Small religious groups and religious political parties made a significant and positive contribution during the constitutional crisis to ensure that Pakistan’s constitution did not contradict with the teachings and commandments of Islam. It made a significant contribution to the protection and preservation of Pakistan’s ideology. But with the passage of time, political unrest and a lack of safety for political parties and leaders grew. Political parties were forming over night, but they were demolished from Pakistan’s political atmosphere the very next day. Party interests and individual interests have taken priority over national or state interests.

    Due to this area politics have emerged in the system. The parties affiliated with the particular areas (for instance, MQM pakistan, Muslim league Q, Awami league, jamat i islami, JUI-F and ANP etc.) tend to work  for the development of a particular region or for the growth of a linguistic or a religious group only ignoring the larger interest of the other sections of society. This structure also gave rise to unnecessary and destructive pressure groups, not just for the state but also for the current national and provincial administrations. They regularly demand policies that are harmful to the state through violent strikes, and they also try to dictate what the governments should do.

    Because no party was able to win an absolute majority under this system, coalition governments have prevailed since the 1970s. Consequently, an alliance or coalition of various parties is required to form the government and to win a majority in the legislature and provincial assemblies. Small parties are able to protect their party interests through this system by secretly negotiating their demands with the ruling parties. The tragedy is that they attempt to cover up all of their hidden agendas by referring to this arrangement as a democratic treaty. It enhanced the spread of corruption, favouritism, and nepotism in addition to the tradition of buying votes of public representatives. All minor parties and independent candidates make an effort to obtain significant portfolios, which reduces the chances that reputable and knowledgeable ministers and advisors will be chosen.

    Because of multiple contradictions between the parties, legislation is becoming an extremely challenging and drawn-out procedure. Small parties and pressure groups frequently make threats to overthrow the government by allying with the opposition. Governments in multi-party systems should be responsive to the demands of the people and answerable to them, but because preserving their regime is their first concern, they only make an effort to fullfil the concerns of allied parties.

    This study shows that, there are countless implications of multi party system in Pakistan. This system is quite expensive and corrupt in nature because the candidates spend alot of their money in election compaigns to become popular and to secure a large number of votes. After winning the elections, these candidates ignore all the obligations and spend all the time in making money. With the presence of multi party system stability in politics is becoming an impossible task to achieve. The unstable and less powerful coalitions increases the threat of incomplete tenures which means constant change in the internal and external policy of the state resulting in the bad image in front of international community and less active and less powerful role in international politics.


    • The two party system currently existing in UK can be a good option for the political system in Pakistan instead of this system.
    • The demands of small parties should be presented in a media conference to fully aware the public.
    • National interests should be priortized instead of party interest.
    • All the power of the state must be utilized in order to eliminate corrupt politicians and corrupt political parties.
    • Accountability of all the poltical parties, institutions and personalities must be ensured.

    Author: UME-AIMAN

    Research Assistant Vision Pakistan 2050


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